Bokmål Mirror Story

So I was standing around wondering what to post when I suddenly remembered all those old books I’d packed when I moved. That’s really the only relevant part of the story, so I’m going to stop it there. This is from a Bokmål reader so old that it smells like literature. If you’ve smelled it, you know what I mean.

It looks like this story was by Camilla Collett. I’d like to encourage you to use translators as little as possible so you can learn more. And if you already know Bokmål… you’re going to be bored. Luckily for me, I haven’t accidentally learned it yet…


 

Det ene speil var kjøpt av en bonde som bodde en hel mil nord for mitt hjem. Jeg tok up til hest, og jeg tror det regnet dyktig den etter middag; men hva gjorde det? For den rette ivrer som drar ut med det sikre håp om å erobre et ekte stykke, gis der ikke regn eller ondt vær.

Jeg nådde stedet og traff mannen stående i sin sval. <<Er det kanskje Lars Mostu selv?>> — <<Jo, det er nok det.>> — <<Er det ikke du som kjøpte det ene av de store speil som ble solgt på M. auksjon?>> — <<Jo, det var nok det au,>> so han. — <<Å, måtte jeg ikke få se det?>> — <<Nei, det var nok itte beleilig det.>> — <<Ikke beleilig?…>> — <<Å nei da; det gikk nok riktig gæli medden speilen!>> — <<Å? … Hvordan det? Den er da vel ikke slått i tu?>> — <<Nei just itte det, men da je skulle kjør’n him om kvelden, så kom je til å kjør’n sund…>> — <<Kjøre den sund! Så er den jo i tu! Men hvordan kunne det gå til?>> — <<Å,>> so mannen, <<je hadde vel litt i hue, som så lett kan hende på slikt et sted, men slettes itte så je kan si at je itte sanset meg riktig; det skal ingen kunne si meg på! Og så la je meg oppe på lasset for å stø’n litt; det tålte han itte, må tru!>>

Jeg overlater til enhver å tenke seg alle de utrop jeg utstøtte i mitt indre. Jeg ville ikke se den, men jeg spurte om han kunne si meg hvor det andre speilet var.

<<Jo, den ble riktig solgt til Østvoll, nå huser je det også. Han Hans Østvoll kjøpt’n. Je hadde vel litt i hue, som så lett kan hende, men slettes itte så je kan si at je itte sanset meg…>> Det var en dryppende, sterktduftende,men lys sommeraften, så jeg besluttet å holde ut of ta innom Østvoll, om det enn ble sent. Jeg nådde gården. <<Er det ikke den mannen som har kjøpt…>> osv. — <<Nei, det var itte je det,>> ble det svart. <<Men mannen på Mostu forsikret meg…>> — <<Å, var det likt seg det da! Je kjøper nok itte slike speiler je! Det må ha vært han gamle Hans der oppe i Nordgården da; men je har itte fornummet noen sånn speile oppe hos ham heller.>> Gamle Hans traff jeg ikke, men hans kone forsikret at det berodde på en ren feiltagelse av Mostumannen. Speilet ble ikke solgt til Østvoll, men til Vestvoll. Der bodde hennes søster; hun hadde nylig sett speilet henge der.

Østvoll og Vestvoll! Altså til Vestvoll. Jeg repeterte for meg underveis, liksom en formular som skal åpne dørene til den forheksede skatt: Konen på Østvoll har sett speilet henge på Vestvoll, konen på Østvoll har sett speilet hos sin søster på Vestvoll. Konen på Østvoll har sett det henge på veggen hos sin søster på Vestvoll osv.

Ankom til Vestvoll. Ved hjelp av en liten hvithåret fyr, som stod i svalen og spiste på et smørbrød, hvis tykkelse, syntes det meg, langt overskred grensene for det en rimelig  kan fordre av et par kjever, fikk jeg konen ut, som satt i sin vev innenfor. <<Er det ikke mor Vestvoll, som er søster til konen på Østvoll?>> — <<Jo, det er nok søster mi det.>> — <<Så er det visst du som kjøpte…>> osv. — <<Jo, det var nok det; frøkna får være så god å gå inn,>> sa den vennlige, pene kone, idet hun hjalp meg ned.

I stuen så jeg neg forgjeves om etter det jeg søkte. <<Jo, det var ganske riktig det; det var en gild speile, men je solgte den igjen tel mannen her borte på Bjørge; han har bygd så, må tru, og så syntes han at han ville ha en speile. — Men det er itte langt til Bjørge, det er bare jordet bortover,>> la konen til, da hun så min skuffelse, som grenset til forferdelse. <<Frøkna rir snart bortom der. Han har bygd han, må tru, og så syntes han at han skulle ha seg en speile.>>

Til den betegnede gård var det nettopp så langt ned igjennom dalen og bort jordene at jeg hadde tid til å utfinne alle muligheter for at speilet ikke var der og, gjøre dem til umuligheter igjen. Han kunne ikke ha solgt det igjen; ti han hadde bygd, og så syntes han at han ville ha… osv. Konen har nylig sett det henge på veggen i hans nystue. Det skulle dog være besynderlig om det på den korte tid var slått i tu. Ildebrann kan ikke ha ødelagt det, for huset, det nye huset, står der jo. Dessuten, intet av hva jeg kan tenke meg, kan hende, altså er det ingen tenkelig grunn til at jeg nå ikke skal se speilet henge på veggen like for mine levende øyne. — <<Er mannen hjemme?>> spurte jeg en jentunge som stod med en annen, nesten likså stor, på armen.

<<Nei, han er itte.>> — <<Vil do være så snill å vise meg den store speilen han kjøpte av mor Vestvoll,>> sa jeg, dristig springende over innledningen. <<Nei, speilen kan Dere itte få se.>> — <<Hvorfor ikke det?>> — <<Han er itte hime.>> — <<Speilen?>> — <<Nei, han er hos snekkeren; men i mårå  kan Dere nok få se’n, for da blir’n ferdig.>> — <<Ferdig!>> skrek  jeg, <<hva har snekkeren gjort med den? Var den i tu… var den sund?>> — <<Nei, han var itte sund. Snekkeren har bare skøri’n opp til småspeiler.>>—


 

Were I to give an award to a post for the most interesting spell-checking I’ve done so far, this one would be the undisputed winner.

Segment of Odyssey Summary

I’ve never really been satisfied with any depictions of this in modern media. On the other hand, what do I like from modern media (excepting some mostly older Black Metal)? My point is: here’s part of Homer’s Odyssey. The chunk I have partially summarized below is from Book X. The copy of the book I have was translated by Robert Fitzgerald and its ISBN number is 0-679-72813-9. Some of the names in the book were written kind of phonetically and I have pretty much kept that below.


 

They had landed on a new island and were trying to decide whether to explore it. The men remembered the tragedies they’d already faced and their brothers-in-arms they’d already lost and began to weep. Odysseus saw they were losing time for action and counted off his Akhaians in two platoons, commanded by himself and his “godlike Eurýlokhos”. They shook lots in a soldier’s dogskin cap to decide which platoon was to go exploring inland. Thusly it happened that Odysseus and his platoon were fortunate enough to stay behind while Eurýlokhos and his twenty-two companions went further on. All wept – including those who stayed behind. The men who left found the hall of Kirkê (a smooth stone house) in an open glade. Wolves and mountain lions lay around the house, but rather than attacking they switched their tails like hounds and fawned on the men – also like hounds – as the men looked upon them in fear. When the men got to the entryway of the house, they stood and listened. They could hear the goddess Kirkê as she sang and weaved on her loom. The men said nothing for a while until Politês (“most faithful and likable of my officers”) calmed the other men, saying it was just a young weaver and that there was no need for stealth. Eurýlokhos was afraid it might be a trap, but the others cried out and were met by the occupant, who seated them on thrones and lounging chairs. She gave them food and wine, then “flew after them with her long stick and shut them in a pigsty”, at which point they had physically become pigs even though their minds remained unchanged. Eurýlokhos (remember: he stayed outside and so remained human) ran down to the ship to warn Odysseus and the platoon that had stayed behind. Odysseus, upon hearing his tale (no pun intended) requested that Eurýlokhos take him back the way he had come. The latter refused, so Odysseus went alone. Hermes met him part way through his trip inland in the form of a man so young that he barely had a mustache (it is typical for him to be described as appearing young, so this isn’t unusual at all), and warned Odysseus about what lay ahead and how to defeat Kirkê and her power. Hermes gave Odysseus a magic plant from the ground to keep his mind and senses clear of the magic (the plant is described as being a “fatigue and pain for mortals to uproot”, having a “black root and milky flower”, and being called “a molü in the language of the gods”, in case anyone is interested). Each went their separate ways; the god to his home Olympos and the godlike man straight into danger (which almost might as well have been his second home for how often he was in it). Odysseus arrived in Kirkê’s hall and was welcomed inside. Kirkê was quite surprised when her magic failed to work and invited Odysseus to bed while his sword was still against her throat (he had swung at her in retaliation to her swinging a stick at him in an attempt to turn him into a pig). He was not taken in by this pathetic display. She had turned his men into pigs under that very roof, after all, and he kept that in mind. Odysseus made her swear that she would not work any enchantment to his harm. “She swore at once, outright, as I demanded, / and after she had sworn, and bound herself, / I entered Kirkê’s flawless bed of love”. (The phrase “bound herself” refers to the oath she made.) Kirkê’s four nymph maids busied themselves in her hall, making the place look nice and bringing in savory loaves to tempt Odysseus, but he, having a heart, would neither eat nor drink as he thought of his lost men. Kirkê asked him why he still wouldn’t eat or drink even after the oath she had made. Odysseus explained that he wanted to see his men, so Kirkê opened up the sty and gave each one in turn a stroke from her staff, which turned them human again. They appeared younger, more handsome, and taller than before. They each took the hands of Odysseus and sobbed. Even Kirkê was moved by this.

The Lay of Vafthrúthnir: Vafþrúðnismál

Short-short pre-summary: Óthin hears of the wisdom of the giant Vafthrúthnir and goes to see him in his hall against his anxious wife’s wishes. The giant begins to test Óthin’s wisdom before realizing who he is, then urges him to occupy the high-seat to continue their contest with the loser’s head at stake. Óthin asks an unanswerable question and Vafthrúthnir then realizes who he is.


 

It starts with Óthin announcing to Frigg that he is about to leave to go see Vafthrúthnir. She asks him to stay, but he assures her that he will be alright. Frigg then allows him to leave while wishing for his safe return.

Óthin walks into Vafthrúthnir’s hall and is straightaway told he won’t be allowed to leave alive if his lore skills are lacking. Óthin introduces himself as Gagnráth (= “Giving Good Counsel”) and Vafthrúthnir invites him to sit down. Óthin declines and Vafthrúthnir begins asking him questions.

Vafthrúthnir first asks for the name of the horse that brings the dawn every day. Óthin correctly answers Skínfaxi and adds that the horse’s mane “glisters like gold”.

Óthin is then questioned as to the name of the horse that brings the night, which he correctly answers to be Hrímfaxi.

He is then asked for the name of the flood “which flows between the garth of the gods and the etins”. Óthin answers Ifing and adds that it never has ice on it.

Vafthrúthnir lastly asks for the name of the field where Surt (the god of fire) and the sacred gods will meet as foes. Óthin rightly states that it is called Vígríth, and further mentions that it is a hundred leagues long.

Vafthrúthnir is quite impressed at this point and again invites Óthin to sit on the bench, while their heads will be at stake and the one with the greater wisdom will be the victor.

Óthin then proceeds to ask eighteen questions (I’ll go over those briefly later), the last of which was what he whispered in his son’s ear “ere Baldr on bale was laid” (referring to himself in third person while asking the question).

Vafthrúthnir realizes at this point who his guest is and tells Óthin that no one on earth knows what he said in the ear of his son. He then admits that Óthin is the wisest being ever born. The lay ends here, but we can assume that Óthin cut off his host’s head since that was what was at stake.


 

Quick Q’s & A’s:

1: Where did the heavens and the earth come from?

From Ymir’s flesh, bones, skull and blood.

2: Where did the moon and sun come from?

Mundilferi is the father of the Moon and Sun. (Kind of…)

3: From where do the day and night come?

Day’s father is one named Delling (= “The Shining”) who was a god who engendered the son Dagr (= “Day”) with Nótt. The Night was born to Nor.

4: In the beginning for the gods, where did winter and summer come from?

Winter’s father is Vindsval (who was born to Vásuth) and Summer is the son of Svásuth. All are giants. Their names in order mean “Wind-Cold”, “the Wet and Cold One”, and “the Mild One”. So Wind-Cold was the offspring of the Wet and Cold One and Summer is the son of the Mild One.

5: In the world’s first days, who was the oldest etin of Ymir’s kin?

Bergelmir was around ages before the earth was made. That thurs’ father was Thrúthgelmir, but the oldest of them all was Aurgelmir.

6: From where did Aurgelmir and his “sib” come?

Élivágar (= “Stormy Rivers”, “imagined as ‘venom-cold’ rivers in the far North”) spurted venom drops which waxed until there was an etin.

7: How did the grim etin beget children when there was no misshapen she-thurs?

A girl and a boy grew under his arms, “one with the other”, and “the wise etin’s shanks begat a six-headed son.”

8: What is or was the oldest “the earth above”?

Bergelmir came to be ages before the earth was made.

9: From where does the wind come?

There is one named Hræsvelg (= “Corpse-Gulper”) which is an etin in the shape of an eagle that sits “at heaven’s end” and beats its wings, creating the wind.

10: From where came the wise Njorth (originally a fertility god, but rules over the wind and sea in Norse mythology, additionally: he “was not begot among gods”)?

Vanir begat him in Vanaheim (= “The Home of the Vanir”) and gave him to the gods as a hostage. The hostage sent in return by the Æsir was Mímir.

11: Where do slain men go to drain goblets together after being slain and faring from battle?

All the einherjar (= “Single Combatants”(?)) drain goblets in Óthin’s garth (open space / garden) after being slain in battle and being gathered by valkyries.

12: What is the fate of the sacred gods?

In short: death.

13: Who will be left after the fimbulvetr (= “Chief of Winters”, said to precede the end of the world and consisting of three winters with no summer between them)?

Líf (= “Life”(?)) and Lífthrásir (= “Longing for Life”(?)) will survive, hiding in the leaves of the tree Hoddmímir (which may be the world-tree Yggdrasil). Their meat will be the morning dews and they will rear the races of men.

14: How will the sun soar on the smooth heavens after being “snatched by Fenrir’s fangs”?

A daughter orb was born to Alfrothul (= “Alf-Beam”, a kenning for the sun) before the latter was snatched by Fenrir’s fangs, and that daughter sun will go on the path of the then-gone sun at the time of the fall of the gods.

15: What wise maidens swiftly fare over the wide sea?

There are three throngs of norns of etins’ kin who assist at childbirth who “throw themselves” over “Mogthrásir’s thorp” (“Mogthrásir” meaning “Desirous of Sons” being a symbolic designation for mankind, “Mogthrásir’s thorp” = the world).

16: “Who will wield the sway when Surt’s fire is slaked?”

Víthar and Váli. Mjolnir will be inherited by Thor’s sons Móthi and Magni (“the Courageous” and “the Strong” respectively). “Other divinities inhabit Itha Field.”

17: Who will kill Óthin?

The Fenris-Wolf (a.k.a. Fenrir) will swallow Óthin. He will be avenged by Víthar.

18: What did Óthin whisper in his son’s ear “ere Baldr on bale was laid”?

No one knows. I even checked the end of Hávamál just to be sure (unless this is like that time with the Norwegian record store when I somehow managed to miss the totally obvious answer to my own question… Never mind that, though. It was only one time. We’ll just assume no one knows). 🙂

Fluoridation Notes

In this post I will be heavily quoting a book called The Case Against Fluoride by Paul Connet, PhD, James Beck, MD, PhD, and H.S. Micklem, DPhil. For those who would like to look for this book, the ISBN number is 9781603582872. It’s got a lot of good information.

For additional viewing, I have written down the sources the authors used in the quotes I have below and will be dropping those sources throughout this post in an orderly fashion so you can all see what the authors were referencing if you desire to do so.

Note: I have only put minimal effort into checking the afore-mentioned sources.

P.S. I claim fair use to the material used here both for commentary and for educational purposes.


 

pg. 118-119: “With the aluminum ion (Al3+) the fluoride ion can form the ion AlF4, an ion that has about the same size and shape as the phosphate ion (PO43-), an ion of huge biological significance.” The latter ion is used for: synthesizing RNA and DNA, the processes of storing and using energy in the body, and controlling some “biological switching devices”. It is because of this that “[i]t is not unreasonable to think that AlF4 might do damage to biological systems, and much more attention needs to be paid to this possibility.”

pg. 124: Dr. Lennart Krook, “[o]ne of the pioneers in researching the impacts of fluoride on farmyard animals”, before dying in April 2010 was investigating something thought to be a mysterious illness affecting the quarter horses on Cathy and Wayne Justus’s farm located in Pagosa Springs, Colorado.34 The extent of the affects of this so-called “mysterious illness” was so great that it resulted in the deaths of some of the animals. The symptoms in the surviving animals only cleared up after their water supply was changed. “Dr. Krook was able to show that the likely cause of the horses’ ailments was fluoride. This event led to the halting of fluoridation in Pagosa Springs. A very disturbing videotape of these horses can be viewed online.35 The Justus and Krook study was published in the journal Fluoride in 2006.”36

34: C. Justus and L. P. Krook, “Allergy in Horses from Artificially Fluoridated Water,” Fluoride 39, no. 2 (2006): 89-94, http://www.fluorideresearch.org/392/files/39289-94.pdf

35: David Kennedy, DDS, produced the DVD Poisoned Horses for the International Academy of Oral Medicine and Toxicology, 2008. Excerpts are available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t9RXfOuylWo

36: C. Justus and L. P. Krook, “Allergy in Horses from Artificially Fluoridated Water” (n. 34 above)

pg. 127: There is something Dr. George Waldbott called “chronic fluoride toxicity syndrome7“, the symptoms of which include “various skin rashes, gastrointestinal symptoms, urinary problems, bone and joint pain, neurological symptoms (headaches, depression, etc.), and excessive tiredness not relieved by sleep.” While it could be argued that a small minority of patients with the symptoms of this syndrome could simply be imagining their symptoms, this cannot apply to all of them since so many patients had no prior knowledge of the negative effects of fluoridated water before they began to receive or consume it.

7: B. Spittle, Fluoride Fatigue: Is Fluoride in Your Drinking Water – and from Other Sources – Making You Sick? (Dunedin, New Zealand: Paua Press, 2008), http://www.pauapress.com/fluoride/files/1418.pdf

pg.127-128: “Some commentators have wondered how one substance could cause so many problems. However, since fluoride interferes with many biochemical processes (see chapter 12), we should not be surprised to see a wide range of symptoms. We should also remember that there is some indication that fluoride interferes with thyroid function, and we know that those suffering from hypothyroidism also have many symptoms that overlap with the symptoms in Waldbott’s list (see chapter 16).” Rather than remaining contained in groups with a sensitivity to fluoride, these symptoms also appear in populations given high doses of fluoride or that have high naturally-occurring amounts of fluoride in their water.

pg. 130: “There have been many reports of skin problems (rashes, ulcers, pimples, etc., in the area of the mouth) associated with the use of fluoridated toothpaste.18-23 As early as 1957, Thomas Douglas, MD, of Seattle, Washington, described the lesions caused by fluoridated toothpaste in 133 patients he had treated.” Among other details, he described the lesions that were both the worst and earliest as being in the areas “which come into contact with the teeth.” And further saying, “[o]f the 133 patients who had the lesions, 94 had gums that bled easily and 99 complained of soreness.24” I prefer studies with a larger number of subjects, but I suppose I can at least keep this one in the back of my mind until similar, larger-scale studies come to light.

18: J. J. Shea, S. M. Gillespie, and G. L. Waldbott, “Allergy to Fluoride,” Annals of Allergy 25 (1967): 388-91

19: T. E. Douglas, “Fluoride Dentifrice and Stomatitis,” Northwest Medicine 56, no. 9 (1957): 1037-39

20: M. A. Saunders, “Fluoride Toothpaste: A Cause of Acne-Like Eruptions” (letter), Archives of Dermatology 111 (1975): 793

21: M. A. Saunders, “Fluoride Toothpaste as a Cause of Acne-Like Eruptions” (letter in reply to Ervin Epstein’s letter), Archives of Dermatology 112 (1976): 1033-34

22: J. R. Mellette, J. L. Aeling, and D. D. Nuss, “Fluoride Tooth Paste A Cause of Perioral Dermatitis” (letter), Archives of Dermatology 112 (1976): 730-31

23: J. R. Mellette, J. L. Aeling, and D. D. Nuss, “Perioral Dermatitis,” Journal of the Association of Military Dermatologists 9 (1983): 3-8

24: T. E. Douglas, “Fluoride Dentifrice and Stomatitis” (n. 19 above)

pg. 130: Sodium fluoride (as in the type added to water sources) has also been known to cause muscle, joint, and bone pain, stiffness in the back and legs, pain most commonly occurring in the spine and knee joints(26), gastrointestinal symptoms including severe nausea, vomiting, peptic ulcers or blood-loss anemia(25), headaches, weakness(29), and effects on brain tissue have been observed by Polish researchers Czechowicz, Osada, and Slesak(31), although that last detail was observed in “high-dose experiments with guinea pigs” rather than with human subjects ingesting more common dosages.* Because of these observations, Waldbott had suggested that, “[i]f such a direct action of fluoride upon nerve tissue should be confirmed by further studies, it would explain some of the diverse neurological complaints in arms and legs, such as numbness, muscle spasms and pains, and the frequent headaches… that I and others have encountered in the early stage of fluoride poisoning before bone changes occur.”32 I’d like to add that I am more concerned with the difference in species than I am with the difference in dosage since a small amount of fluoride or, in this case, sodium fluoride will have the same effect over a longer time as a larger dosage would have in a shorter time (it follows a formula devised by Fritz Haber known as Haber’s Rule, C×t=k, except the exposure in this case is to a non-gas chemical. This rule states that “a low exposure to gas over a long period will have the same result as a high exposure over a short period.” Quote from page 77 of Erik Larson’s In The Garden of Beasts. I guess it’s an okay book, but it’s more narrative than information so I wouldn’t bother re-reading it unless I had a lot of time to kill.)

25: B. L. Riggs, E. Seeman, S. F. Hodgson, et al., “Effect of the Fluoride/Calcium Regimen on Vertebral Fracture Occurrence in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis. Comparison with Conventional Therapy,” New England Journal of Medicine 306, no. 8 (1982): 446-50

26: A. Singh, S. S. Jolly, and B. C. Bansal, “Skeletal Fluorosis and Its Neurological Complications,” The Lancet 1 (1961): 197-200

29: Y. Wang, Y. Yin, L. A. Gilula, and A. J. Wilson, “Endemic Fluorosis of the Skeleton: Radiographic Features in 127 Patients,” American Journal of Roentgenology 162, no. 1 (1994): 93-98

31: K. Czechowicz, A. Osada, and B. Slesak, “Histochemical Studies on the Effect of Sodium Fluoride on Metabolism in Purkinje’s Cells,” Folia Histochemica et Cytochemica 12, no. 1 (1974): 37-44

32: G. L. Waldbott, A. W. Burgstahler, and H. L. McKinney, Fluoridation: The Great Dilemma (Lawrence, Kansas: Coronado Press, 1978)

pg. 228: Fluoridation has been called one of the “ten great public health achievements” of the last century3 by people who support it, but if those people “spent a little time reading the supporting document,4 they would be surprised to find how little substance there is behind that lofty declaration.”5

3: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Ten Great Public Health Achievements: United States, 1900-1999,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 48, no. 12 (April 2, 1999): 241-43, http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00056796.htm

4: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999: Fluoridation of Drinking Water to Prevent Dental Caries,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Review 48, no. 41 (October 22, 1999): 933-40, http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4841a1.htm. Note: The authors of this report were Scott Tomar and Susan Griffin, as cited in Tomar’s curriculum vitae, paper number 27 on page 27 (a link was originally given here in the citations, but the link is now dead)

5: P. Connett and M. Connett, “The Emperor Has No Clothes: A Critique of the CDC’s Promotion of Fluoridation,” Waste Not, no. 468, September 2000 (revised October 3). Published by Work on Waste, USA, 82 Judson Street, Canton, NY 13617, (the link originally given here is also dead)

 

21: The journal Fluoride is published by the International Society for Fluoride Research (ISFR). Back issues available at http://www.fluorideresearch.org/backissues.pdf

 

pg.247: As to whether fluoride is a nutrient: “[I]n order to establish that a substance is an essential nutrient, a researcher has to remove to substance from the diet and demonstrate that disease results. This has not been shown to occur with a lack of fluoride, nor is fluoride known to contribute to any normal metabolic process.” In other words: it isn’t a nutrient.

Fragment of a Sigurth Lay: Brot af Sigurþarkviðu

This is meant to follow “The Great Lacuna”.

“Both poems deal with the central theme of the Sigurth legend-in the main, the hero’s stay at Gjúki’s court, the winning and betrayal of Brynhild, her quarrel with Guthrún, Brynhild’s instigation of Sigurth’s death, and Guthrún’s lament-so that we have a parallel treatment, as in the cases of “Helgakviða” I and II and “Atlakviða” and “Atlamál.” As in most of the lays following, a knowledge of the story is assumed. The poet is interested chiefly in the emotions aroused (here, especially in Brynhild’s breast) by the tragic situation. In other words, these lays are dramatic lyrics with an epic frame.”


Hogni said:

“What hateful harm     hath he done thee,

that Sigmund’s son     thou slain would’st have?”

 

Gunnar said:

“To me hath Sigurth     oft sworn dear oaths,

hath sworn dear oaths     which all were false;

and then betrayed me     the trusted one-

he ought not have been-     in all these oaths.”

 

Hogni said:

“Envious Brynhild     to evil deed

in hate did whet thee,     much harm to do:

begrudges Guthrún     her goodly husband,

and also thee,     in her arms to lie.”

 

Some a wolf did steak,     some a worm did bake,

of the grim beast gave they     Guthorm to eat

ere, eager to evil,     the angry men

on highborn hero     their hands could lay.

 

Slain was Sigurth     south of the Rhine.

A raven on tree     had wrathfully cawed:

“Atli’s sword blade     your blood will redden,

your mainsworn oaths     will murder you.”

 

Without stood Guthrún,     Gjúki’s daughter.

These words the first     fell from her lips:

“Where lingers Sigurth,     the leader of men,

since all my kin     are come before him?”

 

To which Hogni only     did answer make:

“With our swords we sundered     Sigurth’s body;

now stands the grey steed     by stricken hero.”

 

Then quoth Brynhild,     Buthli’s daughter:

“May ye fearless now     hold folklands and arms:

would Sigurth alone     have had sway over all

if but little longer     his life he had held.

 

“Unseeming were it     if sway he had

over Gjúki’s gold     and Gothic hosts,

and to fend him from foes     five sons begat,

swordplay-eager     young athelings.”

 

Laughed then Brynhild-     her bower rang-

one time only,     out of inmost heart:

“Log may ye live     to rule lands and thanes,

ye twain who felled     the foremost hero.”

 

Then quoth Guthrún,     Gjúki’s daughter:

“With fey mouth say’st thou     foul words many:

let trolls Gunnar take     who betrayed Sigurth!

Thy thoughts bloodthirsty     crave threefold revenge.”

 

Deep the men drank-     the dark night came-

many welcome words     then warmed their hearts.

By sleep then summoned     all slept in their beds,

but Gunnar only     of all did wake.

 

Much gan mutter,     and move his feet,

gan bethink him,     the thanes’ leader,

what on greenwood tree     the twain had said,

raven and hawk,     when home they rode.

 

Awoke Brynhild,     Buthli’s daughter,

the queenly woman,     ere coming of day:

“Whet me or let me,     the harm is done now,

whether I say my sorrow     or cease therewith.”

 

Were silent all     when said these words

fair-browed Brynhild,     nor fathomed her speech,

when wailing wept     the woman the deeds

which laughing she     had led them to do.

 

Brynhild said:

“Me dreamed, Gunnar,     a gruesome dream,

that chill our chamber     and cheerless my bed;

but thou didst ride     bereft of joy,

fastened with fetters,     into foemen’s throng.

 

“Thus shall be stricken     the strength of the Niflungs,

the mainsworn kin     unmindful of oaths.

 

“Forgettest, Gunnar,     altogether

how your blood ye both     did blend under sward?

Him now hast thou     with hate requited,

and foully felled,     who foremost made thee.

 

“Was seen fully,     when Sigurth rode

through flickering flame     to fetch me thence,

how the high hero     had held before

the oaths he sware     to serve the king:

 

“His wand-of-wounds,     all wound with gold,

the trothful king     betwixt us laid;

in hot fire wholly     was hardened Gram,

its blade blazoned     with bitter poison.”

 

Of Sigurth’s Death

“In this lay we are told about Sigurth’s death, and that he was slain in such wise, as though they had slain him out of doors; but others say that they slew him while asleep in his bed. But German men have it that he was felled in the forest, and in “The Old Song of Guthrún” we are told that Sigurth was slain while on his way to the Thing with the sons of Gjúki; but all are at one in saying that they overcame him by treachery and killed him while lying down and unawares.”

The Great Lacuna

This piece is connected to the lays I have been posting recently, but unfortunately in “The Lay of Sigrdrífa” there is a part after Stanza 31, line 2 where eight pages are missing and I do not know whether or to what extent that may have affected “The Great Lacuna”. “The Lay of Sigrdrífa” itself was pieced together both from several paper manuscripts “of unknown source” and from the paraphrase of the Vǫlsunga saga.


 

(“Gunnar attempts vainly to ride through the wall of flames. Then Sigurth urges on his steed Grani…”)

 

The flickering flames     upflared to the skies,

the earth quivered     with awful fire;

but few then dared     of the fold-warders

to ride through the fire     unflinchingly.

 

His Grani Sigurth     with sword did urge:

the fire was quenched     before the king,

the flames bated     before the bold one,

the byrnie glistered,     by Regin given.

 

(“On the morrow after their quarrel Guthrún endeavors to reconcile Brynhild and to convince her that her husband Gunnar is second to no one; but Brynhild answers that it was Sigurth who slew the dragon and that this weighs more heavily with her than all of Gunnar’s power…”)

 

“Will not ever after     on earth be forgotten

how Sigurth slew     the grim serpent;

but thy brother     brooked in nowise

to ride through the fire     unflinchingly.”

 

(“Brynhild rejects all attempts on the part of Sigurth to console her…”)

 

From the talk turned him     the trusted thane,

the son of Sigmund,     sorrowing greatly

at his sides so that     his sark did rive,

of iron woven,     on the atheling.

Update

This was a bit of a difficult decision for me to make, but I have decided to change my posting frequency to every other week rather than every single week. Let’s just say that a certain someone explained to me that I need to make more compromises and that led to the decision that I need to spend more time with him. I have plenty of posts up already, so people shouldn’t be too affected. It’ll be okay. It is a simple exercise of what one might call “walking the talk”, so even though the frequency of my posts will decrease, I will still be working on the maintenance of the perpetuation of a European Europe.

This will be starting after next week, so I will still be posting this upcoming Monday.